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Zur Kritik des kolonialen Diskurses

erinnern. Deutschland als Puzzleteil der ›Black Atlantic‹-Landkarte einzusetzen, sei seit dem »Black German life-writing« (421) der 1990er-Jahre immerhin mög- lich geworden. Im vierten Kapitel – Remapping the History of European Colonialism – weitet Göttsche den Fokus auf die Geschichte des europäischen Kolonialismus aus, wie sie sich in Werken deutschsprachi- ger Autoren widerspiegelt. Die europä- ische Erforschung Afrikas, Handel und Niederlassungen von Europäern sowie Dekolonisation und Neokolonialismus als transnationale historische Koordi- naten spielen


gender in Islamic societies. Her main publications include “En- slavement and Manumission of Africans and Yemenis in Saudi Arabia, 1926- 230 | BONDED LABOUR 1938” in Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, and “African Sufi Women and Ritual Change” in the Journal of Ritual Studies. Lindner, Ulrike, professor of modern history at the University of Cologne, Germany. Areas of research include European colonialism in Africa, comparative imperial history and social policy in late colonial Africa. She is the author of Koloniale Begegnungen: Deutschland und

ethnicity is a human universal which has always existed (e.g. Antweiler 2009; also this volume; Gat/Yakobson 2013) or at least has done so in a couple of pre- modern societies; those in the second group associate the emergence of ethnicity and/or race with European colonialism (e.g. Quijano 2000; Thomson 2007); while the third group of arguments state that ethnicity is entirely modern (e.g. Hannaford 1996), or at least did not exist before the formation of nation states (e.g. Klinger 2008; Müller/Zifonun 2010). Of course, there also exist intermediate positions

events. In addition, the scholarly discourse on cross-cultural encounters is so deeply entan- gled with a critique of European colonialism that the latter is sometimes even discovered in situations where European superiority is, if at all, barely more than a claim. As Anne McClintock has put it: If the theory [i.e., post-colonial theory; C.B.] promises a decentering of history in hybridi- ty, syncreticism, multi-dimensional time, and so forth, the singularity of the term effects a re-centering of global history around the single rubric of European time

will also be discussed how photographs may be used in educational and academic contexts. This chapter can also be seen as a contribution to the visual anthropology in Af- rica.2 THE CONTEXT OF THE COLONIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TODAY It is not possible to consider the present and the future of Africa without re- flecting on African-European colonialism. Colonialism ̶ an ideology of mo- dernity ̶ used media like photography to transmit its propaganda. Despite the available corpus, which consists of colonial pictures, postcards, drawings, photographs, movies etc

the climax of European colonialism, the adoption of electricity not only accelerated the global economy; it also promised to deliver understanding of the paranormal, offering potential explana- tions for telepathy, magic, and even communication with the dead. The doors of perception were opened to a vast and powerful world beyond the physical senses. In the early 1780s, Luigi Galvani made a frog’s leg twitch and called it “animal electricity.” Not long after, Alessandro Volta discovered the electrochemical principle of the battery, a purely physical

appropriation) of non-European ter- ritories. The discourse of the primitive draws on notions and concepts developed by nineteenth-century ethnological and ethnographical research and thus perpet- uates figures of thought which originated in the immediate context of European colonialism. A detailed reading shows, however, that both the argumentative concept and the term of the primitive were ambivalent. By the beginning of the twentieth century, at the very latest, it is no longer simply a concept used to de- scribe non-European cultural phenomena in a degrading and

Humanism indeed been a central issue of the humanities in western society and within the Christian articulation of society? The relations of Christianity and Islam were not based on humanism on either side and human dignity was of no concern. They were infl uenced by commercial competition and political control over trade routes. European colonialism treated the local human of the colony as sub- human and justifi ed it through theories of race, a concept suited to colonial needs. Much the same would apply to those that argue for Humanism as qualifying other

counter-memory. Furthermore, it reveals European colonialism’s complicity and Western domination of the current Transitional Justice discourse. As a starting point, I suggest that due to its polysemic structure and the inherent polyphony of the four main protagonists and their narratives, My Heart of Darkness becomes an ambivalent cultural text that allows different readings and identifications according to the various contexts and discursive frameworks of its reception at international screenings. Linking cultural media studies and memory studies with