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69 Etienne Balibar IS THERE SUCH A THING AS EUROPEAN RACISM? Translated by Chris Turner Note from the editors: The following article was first delivered at the congress Fremd ist der Fremde nur in der Fremde in Frankfurt am Main (11th–13th December 1992), organised by Friedrich Balke, Rebekka Habermas, Patrizia Nanz, Peter Sillem and Fischer Verlag.1 It sheds light on a topic that is – despite its references to political and social developments of the 90s – neither bound to this historical angle, nor obsolete in the topic it addresses. Furthermore, the

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 - in Slovenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 - in Turkish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 - in Italian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 I. Introduction Svanibor Pettan Europe and the Potentials of Music in Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Etienne Balibar Is There Such a Thing as European Racism

rely heavily on nostalgic themes evoking an idealized past. 1 Cf. Abby Ferber: lntroduction, in: Abby L. Ferber (ed.), Home-Grown Hate. Gender and Organized Racism, New York 2004, pp. 6-7. 131 Böse Macht Musik The nostalgic elements of white-supremacist hate rock provide a lens through which to examine both the ideological foundations of the white-supremacist movement and the ways in which contem- porary white supremacists react to the world around them. These themes may also help to reveal some of the common ground that white supremacists share with people

positively with the ‘differentness’ of another culture. Visual differences, as well as the way of preparing food or the different rituals or festivals of various faiths, as well as different language all fall into this category (Böhle 1996: 117). 5. Addressing the subject of racism Racism depends on a rigid regard for the habitual idea or image of society. This particular aim was purposely not integrated into the project because I intended for the subject to be approached in a positive manner in the sense that Everybody is special. The subject of racism was only

predominantly online participation also enabled illiberal and reac- tionary movements to widely use music for promoting their political goals. Before successfully implanting their ideas in the political mainstream in many of these countries, new nationalisms in Eastern Europe (Götz et al. 2017) went hand in hand with social movements. In many of the EU15 countries, the catalyst of hate speech spread by marginal political actors trying to be- come mainstream was anti-Roma racism, which reoccurred in public space during the multi-layered crises starting in 2008. I argue

poetry. In 2001–2002, over 50 European conservatoires were identified as having at least some courses in world music on offer (Kors, Saraber and Schippers 2003). 293 Attitudes, Approaches, and Actions PRESENT AND FUTURE Turning to the present, the beginning of the third millennium has witnessed two opposing developments. The rise in racism and mistrust of other cultures post-September 11, 2001 has led to subtle but dubious de-funding of culturally-diverse projects in some countries. It is becoming less politically incorrect to dislike blacks or Muslims

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-9, 185, 250 racism, 55, 109, 156, 236, 264 radicalization, 166 rap, 21, 23, 164-7, 243, 245, 277-82, 284, 286-7, 294-5, 298-9 reggae, 11 regime, 6, 11, 21-2, 101, 106-7, 138, 148, 159, 168, 181, 184-5, 188-90, 209-10, 212, 217, 224-5, 261, 311 rhythm, 142-4, 146, 164, 167, 235, 244- 6, 262, 266, 268, 270, 285, 289-90 Ritter, Rüdiger, 16, 19, 24, 95, 97-8, 100-1, 103, 105, 108 rock ’n’ roll, 11, 30, 41, 100, 157, 186, 189, 216 rock, 6, 11, 21, 30, 37, 41-5, 78, 100, 104, 134, 156, 157, 160, 177, 179- Index | 327 81, 184, 186-7, 189-91, 197-9, 201, 203

gave me a slave pen for my freedom of speech yeah i’m trying to leave the island 20 but swimming through bleach »c’mon son why you always ruin the mood? race talks happen every time you enter the room.« cause: there’s ignorance in the masses too many people think racism is past tense 25 we fight for blackness but we don’t know what black is i know it ain’t the zero sum of white men they wanna know how to reach the hood like there’s magic like we’re all the same 30 like we’re not dynamic hollywood wants to pimp us to get dough ANHANG"|"285" exploit

, the rise of Wilhelminian Germany and the subsequent rivalry with England caused the term to take on a particularly political valence.S association with Wilhelminian and Today, the Teutonic remains tainted by German racism and imperialism, both of Nazi Germany. This notwithstanding, as its of an aesthetic designator, the Teutonic still enjoys popularity, with a more poetic ring than that which it replaces, the "German". For example, it has been used in the music criticism of major pop 7 Part of the extensive etymological note in the Oxford English

”, “Egypt”, “Zulu”, and “Lambarena”. In this context, producers’ presentations of com- posers and musicians are also of interest because, due to the history of racism against blacks, Europeans tend to interpret the descent of Africans and their cultures as essential. As research on everyday racism in Germa- ny shows, most Europeans see somebody who is born in Africa as an Afri- can, even if he or she migrates to Europe and eventually receives European citizenship. Likewise, someone who is black is regarded as an African and as part of an African musical culture, even