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. 41 | It helped, too, that Sikorskii’s son Ivan invented the helicopter. 42 | French Orientalist Ernest Renan, later associated with scientific racism, also wrote about Jesus being able to shed his “Jewish” characteristics because he was a Galilean. 43 | Earlier, however, he had found it laudatory that Jews were not afraid to voice their patriotism, unlike some Russians. See also Kovalevskii 1903, 108. P. I. Kovalevskii: Cr iminal Anthropology and Great Russian Nationalism 81 * * * * Although it is unlikely that Kovalevskii will be given pride of place in the

, Dutch and British theater – seems to be less relevant to them at first sight. A reason for this could be the disproportionate claims to art in the post- Yugoslav context. Artistic representations are often expected to negotiate current issues such as homophobia, racism, war traumas and the desolate economic state of the post-Yugoslav societies, with extraordinarily high unemployment rates, im- mense private and public debts and increasing social insecurity that contradict the glorious promises made by the proponents of economic transition and free market society

, snakes, spiders or cockroaches. The “other” was, once again, biologized (or rather – zoologized), but this time it was not in order to comprehend his individual physical and psychological profile. In Gerd Koenen’s opinion, Gor’kii’s attitude can be described as a form of “social racism” (Koenen 21992, 99; Koenen 2000, 284). In the volume on the Belomor Canal, similar attacks on degeneracy, rottenness, and “two-legged animals” (dvunogie zhivotnye; BBK, 609) can also be found; however, they are downplayed as the success story is given more weight. With catchwords

’s expansion” (nie tradycjonalizm, lecz konkretna twórczość, lecz tworzenie życia całą powierzchną jest prawem narodowego rozrostu).77 For Brzozowski, then, his encounter with Barrès’s work became an oppor- tunity to mark points of juncture and disjuncture with the then rising modern nationalism. What is interesting, though, is that Brzozowski did not use terms such as “nationalism” or “national socialism,” which were coined by Barrès. Nor did he mention at all the problems which were the focus of attention or even outrage of the French author’s readers: his racism

pardons the quislings as the defenders of the national cause: they have sided with the Axis pow- ers only in order to protect – ‘our own’ – nation in stormy times. The cut- throat racism and anti-Semitism that were integral to their politics are ex- plained away as a pragmatic coping with the historical circumstances. 4 For a general critical account of the totalitarian paradigm in post-Yugoslavia, see Luthar, Breda/Pušnik, Maruša: “The lure of utopia: Socialist everyday spac- es”, in: Breda Luthar/Maruša Pušnik (eds.), Remembering Utopia: The Culture of Everyday

wichtige Rolle spielte, wurde so- wohl im Panfuturismus als auch im Rahmen der Nova Generacija, die nach wie vor im Zeichen des Panfuturismus agierte, fortgesetzt. Der gesamtheitliche Ansatz der Programmatik lässt sich bereits aus der Vorsilbe „Pan“ ablesen: Der ukrainische Futu- rismus wollte nicht nur Grenzen überschreiten und Künstler vernetzen, sondern viel- mehr den gesamten (internationalen) Futurismus in seiner Kunst subsummieren.152 Pol to rac’kyjs übersetzte „Panfuturyzm“ als „Vse-Futurism“ [Gesamt-Futurismus],153 was den universalistischen Anspruch

das Resümee Poltorac’kyjs, gezeigt, „як корисні є для науки й для суспільного життя праці формалістів“393 [wie nützlich die Arbei- ten der Formalisten für die Wissenschaft und das gesellschaftliche Leben sind]. Polto rac’kyj gibt jedoch abschließend kritisch zu bedenken, dass nunmehr eine Syn- these von formaler und soziologischer Schule notwendig sei, um das Verständnis von Kunst als Mittel des ideologischen Einflusses nachhaltig zu etablieren.394 Dass es 386 Vgl. Poltorac’kyj 1927: „Kriz’ formal’nu metodu“, S. 39. 387 Ėjchenbaum, Boris (Hrsg.): Skvoz