purportedly wrested, however, from the
biological determinism of eugenic viewpoints and handed over to purportedly
anti-racist sociological analysis by Gilberto Freyre. Freyre has been widely cred-
ited with fully developing the idea of racial democracy that dominated Brazilian
race thinking from the 1930s to the early 1990s. The sociologist claimed that Bra-
zilian society was unique for its smooth blending of European, Indian, and African
people and cultures and free of the anti-black racism that affected the rest of the
world. In Case Grande e Senzala (1986 [1933
Befi·eiung: Wahrheit, Gerechtigkeit und
Versöhnung in Südafrika. Tn: Helmut König u.a. (Hg.), Vergangenheitsbewälti-
gung am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts, Opladen: Westdeutscher, 350-367.
- 1996: Anti-Semitism and Anti-Black Racism: Nazi Germany and Apartheid
South Afi·ica. Tn: Telos, I 08, 25-46.
Adam, HeribertNan Zyl Slabbert, Frederik!Moodley, Kogila 1997: Comrades in
Business. Post-Liberation Politics in South Africa, Cape Town: Tafelberg.
Adam, Heribe11/Moodley, Kogila 1993: The Negotiated Revolution. Society and
Palifies in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Achebe, Chinua (1988): »An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart
of Darkness«. In: Ders., Hopes and Impediments. Selected Essays
1965-1987, London: Heinemann, 1-13.
Albers, Irene/Pagni, Andrea/Winter, Ulrich (2002): »Einleitung«. In:
Dies. (Hg.), Blicke auf Afrika nach 1900. Französische Moderne im
Zeitalter des Kolonialismus, Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 9-26.
Allolio-Näcke, Lars/Kalscheuer, Britta/Manzeschke, Arne (Hg.) (2005):
Differenzen anders denken. Bausteine zu einer Kulturtheorie der
Transdifferenz, Frankfurt/New York
he has his back
up against the wall of authenticity: having been insulted and formerly
enslaved, he picks up the word “nigger” which was thrown at him like
a stone, he draws himself erect and proudly proclaims himself a black
man, face to face with whitemen. The unity which will come together,
bringing all oppressed peoples together in the same struggle,must be
preceded in the colonies by what I shall call themoment of separation
or negativity: this anti‐racist racism is the only road that will lead to
the abolition of racial differences. How could it be otherwise