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. (2010): “Digital Materiality? How artifacts without matter, matter.” In: First Monday 15(6) (http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3036/ 2567). Mackenzie, Adrian (2010): Wirelessness: Radical Empiricism in Network Cul- tures, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Munster, Anna (2006): Materializing New Media: Embodiment in information aesthetics, Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press. Towards an Integrated Theor y of the Cyber-Urban 91 Nakamura, Lisa (2013): “Glitch Racism: Networks as Actors within Vernacu- lar Internet Theory”, Culture Digitally//Examining Contemporary Cultural

in the Use of New Technologies for Distance Learning.” In: Wyatt, S./Henwood, F./Miller, N./Senker, P. (eds.), Technology and In/equal- ity. London: Routledge. Noble, S. (2018): Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: NYU Press. Flis Henwood and Sally Wyat t194 Perelman, M. (2001): “Section: Book Reviews.” Journal of Economic Issues 35(4), pp. 1037–1038. Piketty, T. (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press (first published in French in 2013; translated by Arthur Goldhammer). Silverstone, R

Inequality in the Age of Google.” William Mitchell Law Review 40(2), pp. 848–889. Retrieved from http://open.mitchellhamline.edu/wmlr/vol40/ iss2/12. Noble, S. U. (2018): Algorithms of Oppression. How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: New York University Press. O’Rourke J. S./Harris, B./Ogilvy A. (2007): “Google in China: Government Censor- ship and Corporate Reputation.” Journal of Business Strategy 28(3), pp. 12–22. Pariser, E. (2011): The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding From You. London: Penguin UK. Annika Richterich and Pablo Abend18 Ragnedda, M

://ict.usc. edu/pubs/The%20Hegemony%20of%20Play.pdf (accessed 21 February 2014). Fuchs, C. (2017): “Capitalism, Patriarchy, Slavery, and Racism in the Age of Digital Capitalism and Digital Labour.” Critical Sociology 0896920517691108. DOI: 10.1177/0896920517691108. Galloway, A. R. (2006): Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture. Electronic Medi- ations. Minnesota/London: University of Minnesota Press. Garde-Hansen, J. (2011): Media and Memory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Golding, P./Murdock, G. (1979): “Ideology and the Mass Media: The Question of Determination

is grounded in what Dan Bouk (2015) terms a “white data politics” (185), wherein whiteness serves as the default neutral category for statis- tical models that are used to assess those populations deemed mobile, indeter- minate and substandard. Racialisation emerges as a process of hierarchisation in which biological difference is displaced by a statistical racism rooted in the notions of black inferiority and pathology measured against the ascendance of other “foreign-born” immigrants, like the Irish, Slavic and Italian, to the category of whiteness (Muhammad

underrepresented. But there is a set of more complicated issues that point to the core of the normative argument I am trying to make. The notion of “objective racism” (Barocas/Selbst 2016) highlights the troubling fact that race and other “sensitive attributes” correlate with variables that would seem uncontroversial, for example educational achievement as a factor in hiring decisions. The problem, here, is not that data mining can be biased, but that, after centuries of inequality and discrimination, empirical reality is biased. This problem has led to proposals that

Changing Mise-en-Scène of (Government and) Surveillance”. In: Surveillance & Society 13/3–4, pp. 354–369. Noble S. U. (2018): Algorithms of Oppression: How search engines reinforce racism, New York: New York University Press. Page L./Drummond, D. (2013): “What the …?” Accessed May 28, 2016 (https:// blog.google/topics/safety-security/what/). Pasquale F. A. (2017): “The Automated Public Sphere”. Accessed April 04, 2018 (https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3067552). Perset K. (2010): “The economic and social role of Internet intermediaries”. Accessed April 30, 2015 (http

concerns about racism, free speech, and social justice were widespread in open data events, reflecting both optimism in the power of data to inspire social change as well as skepticism that a mere spreadsheet could possibly encapsulate citizens’ recent and historical trauma and marginalization. Clearly, conceptualizing democracy as care requires renegotiating the rights, duties, and commitments between citizens and government. These negotiations must be local, inclusive, and participatory to be successful. Charlottesville continues to struggle with this difficult

Wissen und der Herstellung soziokultureller Wirklichkeiten. Ganz ähnlich beschreibt z. B. auch Michael Niehaus Formate anhand der systemtheoretischen Generalunterscheidung von Struktur und Nicht-Struktur oder, mit Niklas Luhmann gesprochen, an- hand der Differenz von möglichkeitsgesättigtem, noch unbestimmtem «Me- dium» und einer «Form», die gestaltprägend Möglichkeiten aktualisiert.14 Das SCHWERPUNKT 11  Ulrike Bergermann: «INSTAGRAM RACISM»? Über die neue alte Shirley Card, in: Gender-Blog, 1.10.2015, www.zfmedienwissenschaft.de/ online/blog/%C2%ABinstagram

_klasse_bildstrecke_final.indd 118 22.08.18 09:44 119 antirassistischen und distanzierenden Kommentare seiner Kolleg_innen als «an- ti-white racism» angriff.20 Die deutsch-österreichische identitäre Rechte nahm die Aktion positiv auf und schrieb sie Mike Enoch zu, einem bekannten rechts- extremen Aktivisten, der u. a. den Podcast The Daily Shoah produziert.21 Was bei PewDiePies prank als spontan-naives Entdecken der eigenen Dis- kursmacht inszeniert wird, materialisiert sich bei der Aktion als taktisch lan- cierte Manipulation von Diskursräumen durch eine Diskursguerilla von rechts. IOTBW ist