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Künstlerische Verhandlungen kultureller Differenz in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1960-1990. Eine postkoloniale Relektüre

and the discourses in which it partakes. Many texts in visual culture studies follow this pattern when they study the stereotypeswithwhich discriminated groups are visualised.This researchwas and is important in order to render the history of such stereotyping visible and thus to underline the visual dimension of both manifest and, more espe- cially, latent racism in all its manifold cultural symptoms. But it does also have its strategic pitfalls: when the concept of the gaze is used in this way, the gaze is identical with the images it has produced. Put another way

most thorough analysis of the problem. In a society shaped by racism over centuries, every effort to create a new image had to struggle with firmly established stereotypes in de- picting the black American. Langston Hughes broached this subject in the poem Minstrel Man of 1925: Because my mouth Is wide with laughter And my throat Is deep with song, You do not think I suffer after I have held my pain So long? Because my mouth Is wide with laughter, You do not hear My inner cry? Because my feet Are gay with dancing, You do not know I die?8 The same subject had been

der Tat. Vermessung, Transformationen und Ambivalenzen des Antirassismus in Europa. St. Pölten: Sozaktiv 2002, S. 119-141. 306 DI E KUNST DER GRENZÜBERSCH REITUNG Bratic, Ljubomir: Diskurs und Ideologie des Rassismus im Österreichi- schen Staat, 2003, o.S. Online unter URL: http://www.no-racism.net/ antirassismus/texte/diskurs_ideologie.htm [ 17.03.2011]. Bratic, Ljubomir/Koweindl, Daniela: Eine kurzfristige Parallelisierung von Interessen. Einleitende Worte zu Allianzenbildung und SOHO IN OTTAKRING. In: BratiC, Ljubomir/Koweindl, Daniela/Schnei- der, Ula

by the German consulate general.4 The motto of the event was “tolerance.” In the preface to the Osnabrück catalogue it is claimed that the exhibition is to “initiate a stand against xenophobia and racism,” a goal to be achieved “by providing a profound insight into the creative diversity and energy of these mostly anonymous artists of Africa.”5 In this respect Klimmt empha sized that “authentic African art” was being exhibited in Russia for the very first time.6 In many respects, the Osnabrück opening can be seen as a repeat of the event in St Petersburg on

Selbstdarstellung auf unmöglichem postkolonialen Ter- rain?« (Mustafa 2004: 264-265) Shonibare selbst hebt – nach dem Aspekt von Authentizität und kultureller Identität in seinem Werk befragt – auf Rassismus ab: »The reasons that I’m interested in these grey areas is also political. Racism and exploration are always based on the notion that it is clear who the enemy is […]. Four hundred years ago one of the arguments for racism was that black people were not Christians, and if a person is not a Christian then you can treat him like an animal.« (Guldemond/Mackert 2004: 37

-colonies was precisely because of its vagueness.11 While the students from the French colonies sought with their literary creativity to refute the annihi lating ascriptions of white racism and overcome their self-alienation, Senghor turned his concept of Négritude into a state ideology after independence. For him, poetry and the fine arts were the visible proof of a black African racial character which he defined, taking up Gobineau and Frobenius, as the opposite of the Western variant: “l’emotion est nègre, comme la raison hellène.”12 The pain- ting of the École de

(European Nework Aga inst Racism) Shadow Report 2006 zu Rassismus in Österreich: »The term •racism•, in the Austrian context [ ... ] refers to systematic asymmetries between racially defined groups (the constructed •Other•) and the hegemonic society, which is accepted as the norm. Hegemonie in the Austrian context refers to the white, heterosexual, catholic society. Racism is not the only form of oppression, but it interacts with other mechanisms of discrimination such as sex, class, age, sexual orientation and religious belief." (Beatrice Achaleke/Simon lnou: ENAR

) and, chronologically speaking, predating the academic development by sev- eral years. The non-academic nexus joins politics and art, and my examina- tion of it focuses mainly on Britain and the United States, beginning in the 1980s when the social and cultural tensions of the Reagan and Bush years culminated in the so-called “culture wars”. Artists like Robert Mapplethorpe, Andres Serrano, Jenny Holzer or Barbara Kruger and activist groups of artists against AIDS, racism and sexism provoked the censors with their works, lead- ing to withdrawals of public funding, in

Minderheiten, in: Eckhard J. Dietrich und Frank-Olaf Radtke (Hg.): Ethnizität. Wissenschaft und Minderheiten, Opladen 1990, S. 11–40. 18 | Etwa Stuart Hall: Rassismus als ideologischer Diskurs, in: Das Argument, Nr. 178, 31. Jg., 1992, S. 913–921; Etienne Balibar: Gibt es einen „neuen Rassismus“? in: Das Argument, Nr. 175, 31. Jg., 1989, S. 369–380; Jost Müller: Rassismus und die Fallstricke des gewöhnlichen Antirassismus, in: Redaktion diskus (Hg.): Die freundliche Zivilgesellschaft, Berlin/Amsterdam 1992, S. 25–44, oder auch John Solomos: Making Sense of Racism