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Interdisciplinary Approaches
Narrative and Autoethnography as Theory

Naturally free, politically unfree Voltaire’s Quakers and the modern discourse of human rights INGVILD HAGEN KJØRHOLT A recurring question echoes through the seemingly endless volumes that consti- tute Voltaire’s œuvre: how might freedom materialize in real historical societies? The Enlightenment philosophe repeatedly defined “freedom” as a matter of tol- erance. Tolerance not only ensures individual freedom; as tolerant religious or political authorities do not interfere in the citizens’ thoughts and actions, they encourage a dynamic public sphere

II. Updating the Political II.1 EINE LANDKARTE DES POLITISCHEN Wenn Ulrich Beck die Notwendigkeit seiner Erfindung des Politischen (1993) damit begründet, dass wir in den falschen Kategorien denken und daher das Poli- tische nicht erkennen können (vgl. ebd., 157), decken sich seine Überlegungen auf den ersten Blick mit jenen Chantal Mouffes, die betont, dass aktuelle politi- sche Probleme eng mit der »gegenwärtigen Unfähigkeit, politisch zu denken« verschränkt sind (Mouffe 2007, 16). Während sich für Beck diese Unfähigkeit darin äußert, dass

Foucault, Deleuze, Badiou

Taking politics seriously Gedanken zu einer republikanischen Bürgersolidarität Danny Michelsen, Franz Walter Im konvivialistischen Manifest wird der Versuch unternommen, einige der wichtigsten neueren Ansätze einer politischen Ethik reziproker Verpflichtun- gen zu einem praktisch-politischen Programm als Alternative zum (Neo-)Libe- ralismus zusammenzufassen. Bei der Suche nach den Grundprinzipien einer »Kunst des Zusammenlebens« wird neben der Rechtsstaatlichkeit – die Rea- lisierung einer Kooperationsform, welche »es ermöglicht, einander zu wider- sprechen

An Ethnographic Comparison Between Iceland and Germany

does have pal- pable effects on political participation. Those effects will be the focus of the next chapter. 2.2 Internet and Politics Over the last two decades, the Internet has not only transformed the ways in which people inform themselves and communicate with each other, but has also offered the potential to enrich existing political systems through new forms of democracy, as debates around digital and liquid democracy have illustrated (cf. Plaum 148). The hopes connected to electronic information and communication technologies were high.14 In this chapter

8 Results and Discussion Simply looking at individuals acts of political participation, such as marching in a demonstration or signing an e-petition, is not enough to understand how people’s participation repertoires are influenced by ICT. Indeed, as information, communi- cation and participation are all mutually dependent and interactive, one also has to research people’s information and communication practices. Consequently, one focus of my research is on participants’ information practices, and their practice in terms of navigation and sense-making where

The Concretions of Power | 133 2.5 THE VECTORS OF POLITICAL POWER What is the foundation of political power? More precisely, what is the capacity of actors to assert their interests in the political field of power against the potential opposition of others? This question has implicitly engaged political practitioners and theorists since the beginning of human history. However, it has been explicitly addressed for the first time relatively recently, by one of the most influential and controversial thinkers of modern times: Machiavelli.176 The Italian