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Byzantine and post-Byzantine space, with focus on the rituals of war and violence practiced at the level of political power. Awards: The most valuable Ph. D. dissertation in 2006 Killing and Being Killed 270 Alexandru D. Xenopol, awarded by the Romanian Academy for the contributions to the field of ecclesiastic history, given by Paul Gore 5th, 2008. JUDITH MENGLER is PhD student and research associate at the Research Unit Historical Cultural Sciences, Mainz. She works at the project Bodies of Fighting. Studies on the representation of research interests are

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open for contributions on the history of knowledge, political culture, the history of perceptions, experiences and life-worlds, as well as other fields of research with a historical cultural scientific orientation. The objective of the Mainzer Historische Kulturwissenschaften series is to be- come a platform for pioneering works and current discussions in the field of historical cultural sciences. The series is edited by the Co-ordinating Committee of the Research Unit His- torical Cultural Sciences (HKW) at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

and Philosophy vol.XVI, S. 207-236 Adamson P., Pormann P.E. (2012), The Philosophical Works of al-Kindī, Ox- ford U.P., 2012 Albert H. (1968), Traktat über kritische Vernunft, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 1968 Albrecht H. (2015), Schmerz – Eine Befreiungsgeschichte, Pattloch, München, 2015 Al-Bukhari, Die Sammlung der Hadithe, Ph. Reclam, Stuttgart, 1991 Al-Farabi, The Political Writings, »Selected Aphorisms« and Other Texts, (über- setzt v. Butterworth Ch.E., (2001), Cornell U.P., Ithaca – London, 2001 – (1969), Philosophy of Plato and Aristoteles, in: Alfarabi

43 The Torture of Bodies in Byzantium After the Riots (Sec. IV-VIII) BOGDAN-PETRU MALEON The Byzantine state was a world power that inherited the ethno- linguistic diversity of the Roman period. The consistency of the empire was ensure alty to the central government and, since the 4th century, by belonging to the Christian religion. In terms of political ideology, the territory was inalienable, which implied the preservation of the right over all provinces that had been under the rule of Rome over time. Although Constantinople no longer effectively

violence) for such units. These communities of violence include groups that formed, developed and became stabilised due to the use of violence within their socio-political environment. For them, physical violence determined a major, even fundamental, factor of their existence.19 Thus, violence 15 WENSKUS, 1961. Wenskus ideas were accepted quite soon in German research and consequently built the starting point for the so-called Viennese School (lead by Herwig Wolfram and Walter Pohl), but it took a while

, frequent and sometimes lengthy recurrences of Anglo-Scottish hostilities later in the fourteenth century, at intervals in the fifteenth century and with renewed intensity in the sixteenth century.1 The role played by war in the political development of the later medieval Scottish kingdom is enormous and has received deservedly detailed scholarly attention.2 These conflicts were also fundamental in shaping the self-perception of the Scots as a warrior people whose identity was located in unwavering commitment to a communal struggle for freedom against external

conditions. They did not leave Gallipoli for military aims, strategic considerations or changing politics. They left because there was nothing left in Gallipoli. Regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of food method: it is strictly limited in time. But what is meant by living off the land? Very generally, there is a direct and a rather indirect way in doing so and it could be employed as an offensive and as a defensive weapon.43 The direct way is, quite simply, to take the food from where the army is campaigning. Smaller groups of soldiers

leaders to devastate territory because it allowed them to draw supplies from the land as they passed through, undermine enemy political legitimacy, rather than confront enemy strength directly.16 There was a clear distinction in England, France, and Scotland between combatant and non-combatant during the later Middle Ages. This was largely because non-combatants were untrained and stood no chance against the well-equipped and experienced armies of the day.17 Gratian, in his widely disseminated Decretum (c. 1150), lucidly declares 18 The absence of significant

, which creates meaning by using bodies in different symbolic and very practical ways. Examining this use of bod- ies offers this seems to be the main result of the volume at hand insights in a culture that recruited its political elite out of the order of fighters and therefore represented power not least through the depiction of armed and violently able bodies. 41 As seen in the example of amputated English archers shown by MACDONALD, p. 212. 42 See the considerations by MACDONALD especially under

Italy during the XV century. Therefore, I preferred to focus my attention on four characters, who cover a time frame from the beginning of the XV century until the first years of the XVI century, namely Braccio da Montone, Sigismondo Malatesta, Giulia Morosini 166 .1 Although they differ extremely with respect to temperament and personal and political history, these characters represented the excellence of the contemporary military class of Italian condottieri. For each of these captains I refer in particular to the commentarii of their lives, to personal